Posts tagged ‘Namibia’

SWAPO 1994 Manifesto Namibia

Please click SWAPO 1994 Manifesto Namibia to open the full version of the manifesto as pdf-file.

SWAPO ELECTION MANIFESTO 1994

Better Opportunities for all Namibians

Vote SWAPO

SWAPO, Windhoek, 1994

Published by SWAPO National Election Committee PO Box 1071 Goerhe Street, Windhoek Telephone: (061) 238364

Message from President Sam Nujoma

The past four and a half years of SWAPO governance has earned SWAPO the trust of Namibians in running the affairs of the country.
It earned this trust by caring about how people want their government to function, and by ensuring that the government has the same priorities as those of the people of Namibia.
During the first term of its office, the SWAPO government restructured the civil service to meet the challenges posed by the needs of independent Namibia, ensured peace and stability in the country, promoted equity by levelling the playing field by providing equal access to opportunity to all Namibians, made education and health care available to an increasing number of citizens, and opened up venues in the market economy for Namibians working in the communal areas.
Today, even the poorest Namibians have a real chance of owning their own homes through the Build Together programme, and an increasing number of people have access to potable water and electricity.
In the next five years, we hope to build on the achievements of the first term.
Our priorities will continue to be education, health, housing, employment creation, and, above all, promotion of equity in all aspects including access to land.
As in the past, we hope to keep on working for the fulfilment of the dreams of all Namibians.
Namibians deserve this chance.
I therefore urge you to read the SWAPO Manifesto because we believe that an informed voter is the strength of our party.
SWAPO has an outstanding team to give concrete shape to all the plans outlined in the Manifesto.
This team is fully qualified to continue to build a new Namibia for all Namibians.

President Sam Nujoma
SWAPO’s Plan of Action

Table of Contents … Page

1 Strengthening Democracy … 5
2 Governing with Accountability and Integrity … 19
3 Strengthening our Society … 12
Equality … 12
Affirmative Action … 13
Health Care … 13
Better health for our children … 14
Better health for women … 14
Countering AIDS … 15
Better Education … 15
Primary Education … 15
Secondary Education … 16
Tertiary Education … 16
Literacy … 16
Safety in our Homes and on our Streets … 16
Job Creation … 18
Training … 18

Promotion of Agro-industries … 19
Promotion of Small Business … 19
Tax Incentives and Other Government Support for Job Creation … 19
Building Namibia’s Manufacturing Base … 19
Expanding Tourism … 19
Promoting Building Industry … 19
Promoting Public Works Programmes … 20
Community Based Projects … 20

Promoting Namibia’s Cultural identity … 20
Housing, Electricity, and Water … 21
Housing … 21
Provision of Water … 21
Provision of Electricity … 22
The Land Question … 22
International Relations … 23
National Security … 24

4 Strengthening our Economy … 26 1

Economic Independence … 26
Economic Growth … 27
Economic Justice … 27
SWAPO’s Economic Achievements … 28
Future Economic Challenges … 28
SWAPO’s Economic Strategy … 29
Strengthening economic growth performance … 29
Promoting Rural and Regional Development … 32

5 Strengthening our Productive Sectors … 34
Agriculture … 34
Mining and Energy … 35
Fisheries … 36
Tourism … 39
Manufacturing and Services … 40

6 Strengthening Fiscal Discipline … 43
Finance Policy … 44

7 Strengthening our Human Resources … 46

November 2, 2012 at 22:48 Leave a comment

SWAPO 2009 Manifesto Namibia

Please click SWAPO 2009 Manifesto Namibia to open the full version of the manifesto as pdf-file.

SWAPO PARTY ELECTION MANIFESTO 2009 (from the Original document)

One Namibia One Nation

The future belongs to the children of Namibia

1. Message from the President … 3
2. Safeguard Democracy, Unity, Peace, Stability and the Rule of Law … 8
3. Strengthening Economic Management and Accelerating Sustainable Growth … 12
4. Upliftment of our People’s Health Standards … 20
5. Provision of Housing, Water and Sanitation … 22
6. Environmental Management and Sustainable Utilization of Natural Resources … 24
7. Social Upliftment and Empowerment … 27
8. Human Capital Development and Utilization … 32
9. Safety Nets for Vulnerable Groups … 34
10. Promotion of Gender Equity … 35
11. Enhancing Foreign Relations and International Cooperation … 36
12. Monitoring the Implementation of the 2009 SWAPO Election Manifesto … 39
13. A Sound Record of Achievements … 41

SWAPO united, SWAPO victorious
Now Hard Work!

1. Message from the President

1.1 I am proud to present the 2009 SWAPO Party Election Manifesto to the Namibian electorate.
This document presents the policies and strategies of the SWAPO Party for the next five years.
Once the mandate of the SWAPO Party is renewed, this Manifesto will serve as a contract between the SWAPO Party and the Namibian people.
The SWAPO Party will therefore, without failure, transform our strategies into practical and implementable projects and programmes to accelerate economic growth, to consolidate service delivery and to improve the living standards of all Namibians.
The SWAPO Party has delivered on its commitments made in the SWAPO Party Election Manifesto of 2004, and as a responsible organization, has given an account of the manner in which it has fulfilled such commitments.
In the Report, titled “Achievements: SWAPO Party Election Manifesto 2004”, we demonstrated our capacity to deliver on our promises.
1.2 In presenting this Manifesto and the strategies contained herein, we pay homage to the heroes and heroines of our struggle, who sacrificed for the independence and democracy we enjoy today.
We specifically remember the workers, peasants, youth and students who not only played a significant role in the establishment and building of the SWAPO Party but also provided all round support and materials needed to carry out the struggle for national liberation to its successful conclusion.
It is for these historical realities the SWAPO Party remains deeply rooted in these sections of our society and they will continue to be the focus of our policies.
1.3 The SWAPO Party will continue to promote democracy, peace, stability, protection of the territorial integrity of Namibia and defend the unity of our people as symbolized by our badly cry of “One Namibia, One Nation”.
This unifying call has been the source of inspiration and strength in our long and bitter struggle for national independence.
To this end, the SWAPO Party recommits itself to the improvement of the quality of life of the Namibian people through well-thought out people-centred development programmes.
These programmes emphasize ongoing investments in health, education, training, housing, infrastructure and the general welfare of our people.
The SWAPO Party recognises the importance and strength of our cultural diversity, history, tradition and heritage and its positive impact towards nation building.
The SWAPO Party is the only political party that has over the years developed institutional capacity and ability to govern and deliver on its promises.
1.4 In order to bring about the required economic growth, the SWAPO Party will promote policies and a conducive environment for the development of the private sector, investment promotion, trade and international cooperation.
The SWAPO Party will ensure that State-Owned Enterprises continue to be reformed in order to play their catalytic rile to economic growth through the provision of hey services and entry into strategic areas.
The SWAPO Party will continue to drive the implementation of short, medium and long term development plans, as well as the implementation of ongoing projects and programmes.
1.5 The SWAPO Party will promote and participate in Public-Private Partnership arrangements that are meaningful to the development of our country.
The SWAPO Party will continue to encourage and promote the development of the culture of entrepreneurship, small and medium enterprises, manufacturing and value addition, black economic empowerment and greater diversification of our economy.
These changes will include capital market reforms to attract the capital required for investment and growth.
The SWAPO Party is committed to undertake such reforms on a balanced approach, which on the one hand seeks to optimize domestic saving for national development and on the other hand to maintain the integrity of such savings and returns thereon.
1.6 Greater emphasis will continue to be placed on the development, maintenance and rehabilitation of infrastructure such as housing, power generation and transmission, water supply, telecommunication, transport and office accommodation in order to serve the current and future generations.
It is the commitment of the SWAPO Party to ensure equitable distribution of resources and infrastructure development throughout the country.
We are cognisant that industrialization and an export-oriented economy will offer the best opportunities to address the challenges of job creation and revenue generation in our country.
Therefore, our policies will strike a balance in resource allocation between social and productive sectors.
There is no doubt that such policies will further contribute to the reduction and eventual elimination of the inherited social and economic inequalities leading to the improvement of health and quality of life as well as enhanced knowledge and skills needed for the upliftment of all our people.
1.7 The creation of productive jobs remains a high priority for the SWAPO Party.
Therefore, growing the economy is a prerequisite to create much needed job opportunities.
The SWAPO Party will ensure that investments are made and promoted in the sectors of agriculture, mining, fisheries and aquaculture, manufacturing, tourism, finance, information technology, telecommunication, transport, energy development, construction and the development of other critical economic infrastructure.
1.8 The SWAPO Party remains committed to the building of a vibrant economy and bringing about economic empowerment and greater prosperity for all.
This will be done through the provision of equitable access to resources and means of production.
Equally, a greater investment in education, training and skills development will improve our ability to harness science and technology in the process of developing innovation, efficiency and productivity.
We will therefore continue to invest in education and training, research and development, acquisition and adaptation of technology.
The SWAPO Party will also ensure that the public service is strengthened and capacitated to ensure efficiency, value for money, productivity and a cost-effective service delivery.
The programme of public service training will also include aspects of corporate culture, ethics and identity.
1.9 Rural development is critical in the developmental agenda of the SWAPO Party.
Therefore, new and existing programmes will be further developed and expanded to increase access to basic infrastructure and services.
Housing, access to potable water, health centres, rural electricity, schools, feeder roads, and other social amenities will continues to be developed country-wide.
It is the commitment of the SWAPO Party to continue to devote a greater amount of public resources to the goal of meeting the social needs of our people.
1.10 Building a just and caring society is central to the SWAPO Party’s philosophy.
The Party will, therefore, continue to pursue strategies and allocate resources towards the prevention and combating of diseases such as HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.
Resources will be earmarked for strengthening the safety nets which support vulnerable groups.
Equally, we are committed to ensuring that all members of society, without regard to social status and cultural background, will be accorded the same opportunities to develop.
Efforts will be intensified to accelerate the implementation of programmes aimed at improving the living standards of the veterans of the national liberation struggle, to ensure that they live in dignity as a tribute to the sacrifice they made to bring about national independence and freedom.
1.11 Our country has been faced with floods and droughts over the past years.
It is, therefore, imperative to study and understand the prevailing phenomenon of climate change and its potential impact on our lives.
We take cognisance that Namibia depends on agriculture for food security and livelihood.
Therefore, the SWAPO Party will ensure that measure are devised and put in place to mitigate the negative effects of climate change on our environment and economic growth.
Taking into account that the effects of this phenomenon ma occur frequently and / or unexpectedly, Namibia will have to adapt and learn to live under these erratic weather conditions.
1.12 The environment belongs to us all, and therefore we all have an obligation to help it in a clean and healthy state.
Hence, greater emphasis will be placed on sustainable utilization of our natural resources, prevention of land degradation, pollution and littering, prevention of settlement in flood prone areas and the improvement of the standards and quality of physical infrastructure such as bridges, roads and buildings.
1.13 As a rule based organisation, the SWAPO Party recognises the maintenance of law and order as one of its priorities.
For this reason, laws aimed at effectively preventing and combating crime will continue to be strengthened to ensure that Namibia remains a safe and peaceful country.
1.14 The SWAPO Party remains committed to a foreign policy that supports good neighbourliness, peaceful coexistence and cooperation.
Thus, we will continue to cultivate, nurture and strengthen friendly and cooperative bilateral relations with neighbouring states.
The Party will carry on promoting regional integration through membership to SACU and SADC.
Furthermore, we will strive to promote world peace and security, fair trade and equitable development through membership to regional and multilateral organisations.
We will continue to honour international commitments, including those under the AU and the UN.
We will therefore continue to maintain and promote friendly relations, justice, peace and security, and the elimination of poverty, hunger, disease and deprivation.
1.15 The SWAPO Party will put in place a monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track the pace and effectiveness of the implementation of the 2009 SWAPO Party Election Manifesto on a regular and systematic basis.
This will enrich our understanding and enable us to provide timely interventions, where necessary, in order to fulfil the commitments we have made to the electorate.
1.16 By presenting the 2009 SWAPO Party Election Manifesto, I am inviting public debate on this important national development agenda aimed at the socio-economic development or our country.
The SWAPO Party leadership, along with the entire membership, are prepared to engage the electorate around these fundamental issues highlighted in the 2009 SWAPO Party Election Manifesto.
1.17 The SWAPO Party remains the only driving force for change in Namibia.
The Party has delivered on its promises to the Namibian nation over the past 19 years and remains a tried and tested political party with the credibility and capacity to yet again deliver on its promises.
1.18 I am therefore inviting you to vote for the SWAPO Party.
Your vote for the SWAPO is a vote for a Secure Future, Peace and Prosperity.
HIFIKEPUNYE POHAMBA
PRESIDENT OF THE SWAOP PARTY
Striving for Economic Independence and Prosperity for all
“The blood waters our freedom”

October 15, 2012 at 22:52 Leave a comment

SWAPO 1989 Manifesto Namibia

Please click SWAPO 1989 Manifesto Namibia to open the full version of the manifesto as pdf-file.

SWAPO ELECTION MANIFESTO (from the Original manifesto)

Towards an independent and democratic Namibia: SWAPO’s policy positions

TABLE OF CONTENTS … PAGE

SWAPO’s Philosophy of Government … 1-2
The Namibian State … 3-4
Foreign Policy … 4-5
Citizenship … 5-6
Language Policy … 6-7
State and Religion … 7-8
Economic Policies … 8-13
Science and Technology … 13-14
Policy on Health … 14-15
Education and Culture … 15-17
Policy on Rural Development … 17-18
Local Government and Housing … 18-19
Policy on Women … 19-20
Youth and Students … 21
Labour in Independent Namibia … 22
Armed Forces … 23
The Mass Media … 23-24
Corruption in Public Life … 24-25
Policy on Public Finance … 25-26
Electoral Process … 26

Published by SWAPO Directorate of Elections

SWAPO’S POLICY POSITIONS

Introduction

Today Namibia is at the crossroads of its independence.
The agony of death and destruction that the Namibians have endured for the past 105 years of colonial oppression is about to come to an end and freedom is in sight.
The process of transition to independence has already started, On 1November
1989, the Namibian people will exercise their long-denied right to self-determination by electing their own leaders who, by virtue of being elected by the masses will have the sovereign right to draft the constitution of independent Namibia.
This will bring about a new political and socio-economic order.
The task before the Namibian people is to seize this historic opportunity and ensure that they join hands to safeguard the revolutionary gains we have made in bringing our country to the threshold of independence.
Seizing this opportunity means, first, to register as a voter, and second, to vote and send to the Constituent Assembly men, and women with a revolutionary will,
honourable record, vision for a better future, integrity, experience and proven ability to fight for the interests of the broad masses of the Namibian people.
Such men and women are to be found in SWAPO. SWAPO has stood tall in the face of formidable odds over the last twenty-nine years of its struggle to free Namibia.
Because of this fact, SWAPO had participated in the formulation of Resolution and fought bravely for the last 11 years for its implementation.
The motivating force behind this struggle has always been to guarantee that power is given to the Namibian people to decide the future of our country through free and fair elections.
Now that Resolution 435 is being implemented, the Central Committee of SWAPO has the honour to place before the people of Namibia its concrete programme of action in the form of SWAPO’s policy positions on a broad spectrum of political, economic, social and cultural issues.
Together, these policy positions form SWAPO’s Election Manifesto.

October 2, 2012 at 22:40 Leave a comment

SWANU 2009 Manifesto Namibia

SWANU of Namibia MANIFESTO 2009 ELECTIONS THEME (from the Original document)

SWANU CARES FOR THE PEOPLE

STATEMENT Y SWANU PRESIDENT Usutuaije Maamberua

Dear Countrymen and women

The political challenges as opposed to social and economic challenges that need to be tackled are many but political tolerance, national unity, promotion of democracy, the rule of law and justice for all inter alia need to be at the top list of our priorities.
These challenges are recipe for peace, stability and tranquillity in Namibia.
SWANU would like to see the election to be free and fair and conducted in an atmosphere that is conducive and consistent with the principles on which the democratic constitutional state of Namibia is established.
Therefore, the following immediate issues must be addressed:
a. Use of hate speech by party leaders must amount to sanctions of a party including disqualification from participating in the election, either for the individual making the hate speech, or the party as such.
b. Currently, the critical issue is the allocation of airtime to political parties by the NBC that is skewed and unequal. This is unconstitutional; therefore all participating parties must be given equal air allocation.
c. The playing field must be levelled, by for instance party funding according to the number of votes and not according to the number of sits in parliament.
d. There should not be voting by use of Pencils.
e. Ballot papers must be printed by another neutral company that is not linked to any political party. Therefore the contract (if any) with the Swapo linked company must be terminated forthwith.
In this respect, SWANU is promoting political tolerance and is part of the ECN Political Liaison Committee (PLC), established for the purpose of harmonising or reconciling differences on electoral related matters. We are also educating our members in the best principles of democracy and political ethics.

Comradely yours
Usutuaije Maamberua
SWANU PRESIDENT

September 15, 2012 at 22:37 Leave a comment

MAG 2009 Manifesto Namibia

Please click MAG 2009 Manifesto Namibia to get the manifesto as pdf-file.

IMPROVE THE CONSTITUTION OF NAMIBIA! MAG Manifesto 2009 (from the Original document)

80808, OLYMPIA, WINDHOEK  • 061-252008 • 061-229242 mag@iway.na

Treat the cause – not the result!
– Erase the undefined concept “secular” from the constitution.
– A secular and neutral political philosophy and educational programme is primarily responsible for the lack of discipline and the collapse of the morale of the Namibian people.
– Do not confuse our children with an education (philosophy of life) in state schools that differs from that in their homes.
– Bring discipline, recognition of authority and civilised hidings back into our houses, schools, courts and traditional authorities.
– Replace the National Council with a House of Traditional Leaders.
– Acknowledge the religious convictions of the majority, with legal entrenchment of the rights of minority religious groups.
– Acknowledge the diversity of nations and / or population groups (Communities), their interdependence, their right to self-determination and co-partnership in general as well as in own affairs, that is, unity in diversity.
– Maintain the necessary balance between the rights and responsibilities of the individual and those of the group.
– Interpret the “right to life” to such an extent that the same applies to the victim and the killer. Bring back the death penalty through a competent court.
– Create equal opportunities for all Namibian citizens on the grounds of merit, expertise and experience. Guard against the establishment of a privileged elite – white, black or brown.
– Provide clear definitions in the constitution for the concepts “equal opportunities” and “free association”, and get rid of quotas based on race, ethnicity or gender.
Thanks to MAG’s diligence in the abovementioned regard the past 20 years, we have already made great progress.
Please help us to capitalise on it.
BLY ’N KRAG – SLAAN ’N SLAG – STEM VIR MAG
[Policy document of Monitor Action Group, during the 2009 elections]
NASIONALE VERGADERING
VERKIESING 2009

September 2, 2012 at 22:23 Leave a comment

RP 2009 Manifesto Namibia

Please click RP 2009 Manifesto Namibia to open the full version of the manifesto as pdf-file.

The Manifesto of The Republican Party of Namibia Vote RP! 2009 (from the Original document)

MANIFESTO of The Republican Party of Namibia
The Republican Party of Namibia acknowledges God, the Trinity, as the Sovereign creator of the universe, who has entrusted to humanity the right and responsibility to rule over the affairs of the world.
Source: Founding Statement (Art. 2)
The Republican Party of Namibia believes that Namibia must be a nation in submission to the Almighty God.
The Republic Party believes in a constitutional state that promotes Christian moral values and as such rejects the concept of Namibia as a secular state.
The Republican Party will strive to mobilize all Namibian citizens, regardless of race and ethnic origin, bound by common democratic values, to exercise their fundamental right of participation in all governmental institutions and processes in order to:
– Uphold the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia
– Strive tirelessly towards the achievement of freedom and equality and the eradication of all forms of corruption, suppression, unfair preference and nepotism.
– Promote improved human relations and national reconciliation
– Secure peace, security and stability by means of social, economic and human
development.

August 15, 2012 at 22:32 Leave a comment

NUDO 2009 Manifesto Namibia

Please click NUDO 2009 Manifesto Namibia to open the full version of the manifesto as pdf-file.

NUDO OF NAMIBIA – NATIONAL UNITY DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION (NUDO) – 2009 ELECTION MANIFESTO (from the Original document)

ONE PEOPLE ONE AIM ONE DESTINY

NATIONAL UNITY DEMOCRATIC ORGANISATION

1. Introduction
1.1 Forward

2. Preamble

3. PRIORITY POLICY AREAS
3.1 Education
3.2 Health
3.3 Lands, Land Reform and Resettlement
3.4 Agriculture and Water
3.5 Decentralisation (Regional and Local Governance)
3.6 Youth, Sports and Recreation
3.7 Economic Growth and Job Creation
3.8 Combating Poverty
3.9 Law and Order
3.10 Women Empowerment and Gender
3.11 Disability
3.12 Democracy and Institutions of Governance
3.13 Namibia and the World

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Forward
By The President of NUDO –
Dr. Kuaima Riruako

I am very glad to introduce our 2009 manifesto to the nation.
This is the second manifesto of NUDO.
As a movement, we have increasingly demonstrated that ours is a Party that is people cantered and is driven by ordinary people.
In short, the power of our party is with the people.
We are neither a feudal party nor a property for any individual.
In addition we are neither a creation of colonial masters.
Our midwives are our people, especially the poor and disadvantaged who are seeking an alternative dispensation.
Second, we have demonstrated that we exist because we believe that we can make a difference.
Our commitment to transforming the politics, the economy and the social setting of Namibia is clearly articulated in our Manifesto.
Third, we don’t intend to position ourselves as a life long opposition party, we see ourselves as a government in waiting.
We are convinced that our followers are growing, and that the path we have taken is the path for the people. Central to our politics is that we CARE!
– We care for the poor and the oppressed.
– We care for those feel that government is remote and hostile.
– We care for those struggling to make ends meet in the face of rising prices.
– We care for the those who do not have satisfactory place to live.
– We care for the old and the young who have no organisations to defend them.
– We care for women who have been marginalised.
– We care for the exploited youth.
– We care for our collapsing small business people.
– We care for those discriminated on the basis of ethnic group or religion.
– We care for those who want to raise their families from poverty.
– We care for our teachers, uniform force, civil servants and local business people.
– We care because we believe in the supreme value of individual human personality.
A significant section of our population is trapped in poverty.
This is demeaning both in respect of the lack of access by the poor to material resources as well as their poverty being an affront to their human dignity.
Indeed, NUDO believe the biggest indictment of democracy in Namibia is that poverty has worsened, and is in fact more prevalent today than at any many time in our recent past.
Neither the levels of economic growth nor the various measured the SWAPO led government has taken to date have been sufficient to free the poor from their poverty trap.
The success of any country depends on good policies, commitment and love for people.
We possess all those ingredients.
We appeal to voters not to waste their vote by piling up majorities behind SWAPO and its candidates, but use the vote positively and usefully to show how many thousand of people in this country really care.
YOU DO THIS BY VOTING FOR NUDO.
1.2 Executive Summary
This manifesto comprises our identification of the critical problems facing our society and how we propose to tackle them.
The point of departure of this manifesto is that Namibian economic growth has not led to the improvement of the living standards of our people.
It is incontestable that the exceptional performance of the diamond, fishing and tourism, the Namibian economy has not produced enough jobs for our people.
Those who are lucky to be employed earn slave wages and work under intolerable conditions.
Notwithstanding two decades of promises by the SWAPO Party to diversity the economy, create jobs and improve agricultural output, the SWAPO government has failed to deliver on its promises with the result that close to 40% of our people live below the poverty datum line.
In this Manifesto NUDO sets outs its vision terms of which citizens live above the poverty datum line, where economic growth primarily serves human development needs such as household food security and access to health and education.
This manifesto further articulates our party’s position on modernising democratic institutions and entrenching democratic governance.
Our aim is to create a society where democracy is respected, a society where human rights are upheld by centre of power such as government and institutions and where justice is accessible and the rule of law applied to all irrespective of social status, gender, race, colour, age or other differences.
We are committed to improving the lives of our people through massive public investment in health and education, giving priority on rural development, nurturing an economy that produces jobs and embarking on aggressive pro-poor rural development policies including agrarian reform and infrastructural support for smallholders in production.
We also undertake to provide stable economic growth that would also generate and promote competitive business environment.
In this manifesto you will find quite a wide array of problems and proposed solutions.
I appeal to all read it as that is a crucial step towards the urgent task of ending SWAPO misrule and voting in a modern party – The National Unity Democratic Organisation (NUDO) it is your vote that will determine our future and that of our children.
Vote for a disciplined, organised and stable party
– Vote NUDO!

August 2, 2012 at 22:27 Leave a comment

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This blog is about countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) regarding societies, political parties and policies. Most interest will be spent on the countries: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia.

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