Posts tagged ‘1989’

SWAPO 1989 Manifesto Namibia

Please click SWAPO 1989 Manifesto Namibia to open the full version of the manifesto as pdf-file.

SWAPO ELECTION MANIFESTO (from the Original manifesto)

Towards an independent and democratic Namibia: SWAPO’s policy positions


SWAPO’s Philosophy of Government … 1-2
The Namibian State … 3-4
Foreign Policy … 4-5
Citizenship … 5-6
Language Policy … 6-7
State and Religion … 7-8
Economic Policies … 8-13
Science and Technology … 13-14
Policy on Health … 14-15
Education and Culture … 15-17
Policy on Rural Development … 17-18
Local Government and Housing … 18-19
Policy on Women … 19-20
Youth and Students … 21
Labour in Independent Namibia … 22
Armed Forces … 23
The Mass Media … 23-24
Corruption in Public Life … 24-25
Policy on Public Finance … 25-26
Electoral Process … 26

Published by SWAPO Directorate of Elections



Today Namibia is at the crossroads of its independence.
The agony of death and destruction that the Namibians have endured for the past 105 years of colonial oppression is about to come to an end and freedom is in sight.
The process of transition to independence has already started, On 1November
1989, the Namibian people will exercise their long-denied right to self-determination by electing their own leaders who, by virtue of being elected by the masses will have the sovereign right to draft the constitution of independent Namibia.
This will bring about a new political and socio-economic order.
The task before the Namibian people is to seize this historic opportunity and ensure that they join hands to safeguard the revolutionary gains we have made in bringing our country to the threshold of independence.
Seizing this opportunity means, first, to register as a voter, and second, to vote and send to the Constituent Assembly men, and women with a revolutionary will,
honourable record, vision for a better future, integrity, experience and proven ability to fight for the interests of the broad masses of the Namibian people.
Such men and women are to be found in SWAPO. SWAPO has stood tall in the face of formidable odds over the last twenty-nine years of its struggle to free Namibia.
Because of this fact, SWAPO had participated in the formulation of Resolution and fought bravely for the last 11 years for its implementation.
The motivating force behind this struggle has always been to guarantee that power is given to the Namibian people to decide the future of our country through free and fair elections.
Now that Resolution 435 is being implemented, the Central Committee of SWAPO has the honour to place before the people of Namibia its concrete programme of action in the form of SWAPO’s policy positions on a broad spectrum of political, economic, social and cultural issues.
Together, these policy positions form SWAPO’s Election Manifesto.


October 2, 2012 at 22:40 Leave a comment

DTA 1989 Manifesto Namibia

Please click DTA 1989 Manifesto Namibia to open the manifesto as pdf-file.

DTA MANIFESTO 1989 (from the Original document)







Therefore the DTA commits itself to the creation of a constitution as supreme law of the country in terms whereof –
1. this country will become a FREE, INDEPENDENT and SOVEREIGN state, the Republic of Namibia –
(a) in which the people of Namibia, free from outside domination, will be able to elect and constitute their own government on a regular basis;
(b) founded upon the principles of democracy, fundamental freedom and responsibilities, rule of law and an economy based on private, public and co-operative rights of ownership and initiative, social justice and equal opportunity for everyone;
(c) having its own national flag, national anthem, national cost of arms, seal, citizenship, currency and official languages; and in which a Bill of Fundamental Rights, to be respected and upheld by successive governments, which is binding on the government and all its institutions and which is enforceable by independent courts of law, will be entrenchened;

2. EQUALITY will be guaranteed to everyone –
(a) in that all people of Namibia will have equal rights which will safeguard them from government and an other form of oppression;
(b) in that all people will be equal before the law and no-one will be favoured of prejudice by the government or any public institution or by any other group or person on the basis of his / her ethic or social origin, sex, race, language, colour, religion or political conviction;
(c) in that apartheid in all its forms will be rejected;

3. LIBERTY, the right of freedom and expression of opinion, freedom of conscience and of religion, (including the right to freely seek, receive or impart information or ideas through the press and other medial, freedom of movement and of choice of residence, and freedom to enter or leave the country will be guaranteed to the people of Namibia;

4. PEACE, not only for all the people of Namibia, but also amongst all people, and between political, religious, cultural, linguistic and ethic groups in Namibia, will reign and that, furthermore –
(a) Namibia territory will not be used by any person, group or government to launch attacks on other countries, their governments or their people;
(b) the goal of national reconciliation and harmony between all the people of Namibia will be realised;

5. PROSPERITY can be attained in that –
(a) every Namibian, his children and their descendants may live free from poverty and without having to be dependent on others;
(b) every person’s right to acquire, own and dispose of property will be safeguarded;
(c) every person will have a right to education;
(d) every person will have the right to associate freely with any other person or group of persons, societies or associations, including the right to establish, maintain and join trade associations for the protection of the interest of employees;
(e) a system of communal land ownership by certain tribes or communities will be recognized, where the traditional authorities of those tribes or communities will have the right to control the same and dispose thereof, but subject to the directives of the members of such tribes or communities, and if they so elect, to acquire economic units by treaty in private ownership;

6. SECURITY of every Namibian will be assured in that –
(a) n-one will feel threatened or unsafe;
(b) no-one will be tortured or punished in an inhuman and humiliating fashion or be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention;
(c) every person’s right to life, personal liberty and privacy will be entrenched in the Constitution;

7. JUSTICE will be guaranteed to every and –
(a) will be administered by an independent judiciary consisting of judges who are answerable to the law alone (and not to the government or any other person);
(b) will ensure that every person will be entitled to an impartial trial to determine their rights and responsibilities in civil cases or to determine their innocence or guilt in criminal cases;
(i) to be presumed innocent until proven guilty;
(ii) to testify or to call witnesses, it so desired;
(iii) to cross-examine witnesses for the state;
(iv) to be allowed reasonable facilities and sufficient time for the preparation and presentation of defence and to obtain legal representation;

8. GOVERNMENT, constituted on the basis of proportional representation, will be established in which every citizen will have the entrenched right to –
(a) participate in peaceful political activities with a view to the constitution of governmental bodies and the determination of government policy;
(c) participate in elections and government; and
(d) assemble peacefully and unarmed;

(i) a President elected for a period of 6 years by both Houses of Parliament, will be Head of State and will have certain ceremonial and executive functions which he must execute, subject to the Constitution and other laws of the country and in the best iinterests of the country and its people;
(ii) a Cabinet, consisting of a Prime Minister, elected by the National Assembly, and Ministers, who will be appointed by the Prime Minister from the ranks of the National assembly, who will collectively by responsible for the execution of the laws of the country;
(iii) a Parliament, consisting of a National Assembly and a Senat, which will be elected in a free and fair election for a five year term by the electorate and which will have the power to make laws, which may not conflict with the entrenched Bill of Fundamental Rights;
(iv) Regional Councils, consisting of persons elected on a regional basis by the electorate and –
(aa) who will exercise certain powers on a regional basis;
(bb) from the ranks of whom members of the Senate will be elected;
(v) a single Local Authority for each municipality will be established and elected by enfranchised voters within the boundaries of such municipality which will protect
and promote the interest of all people within its area of jurisdiction;
(vi) a Peri-Urban Council, consisting of persons appointed by the Cabinet, to manage the interests of people outside municipal areas;
(vii) an independent Ombudsman, appointed by Parliament, to investigate all complaints of maladministration perpetrated by the State, who will report to Parliament;
(viii) Civil Servants who will perform their duties and functions in an impartial and competent manner.
(ix) The principle of proportional representation will apply throughout.
Unite for peace in Namibia
Work together for prosperity.
Vote together for freedom.

June 2, 2012 at 22:05 Leave a comment

BDP 1989 Manifesto Botswana

Please click BDP 1989 Manifesto Botswana to open the full document as pdf-file.

BOTSWANA DEMOCRATIC PARTY (from the Original document)

Issued by D.K. Kwelagobe, Secretary General, Botswana Democratic Party, Gaborone and printed by Printing & Publishing Co. Botswana (Pty) Ltd. P.O. Box 130 Gaborone



This is the sixth Manifesto of the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP). Its publication is significant for several reasons.

Firstly: The BDP is the only party in Botswana which has produced a comprehensive manifesto, setting out its goals and policies for voters to study, before every national election since 1965.
Secondly: The BDP manifestos appeal to all Batswana, not to any single group or segment of our society. The BDP, alone, has contested every single constituency in every single national election. We are a truly national party.
Thirdly: It is significant that there have been five national elections in Botswana, at roughly five year intervals – the last in 1984. The BDP has not succumbed to the temptation of dispensing with free elections or declaring a one-party state.
Fourthly: It is noteworthy that the same party, the BDP, has convincingly won every election, not because the opposition parties have been banned. Not because dissent and criticism have been suppressed. But because the BDP has been able to change and evolve as circumstances have changed. Although our principles have remained unaltered, each of our first five manifestos spelt out new policies, announced new programmes, charted new directions. The 1989 Manifesto is no exception. The BDP has demonstrated a capacity to innovate and to respond to new challenges.
We are not locked into any immutable alien ideology or tied to any ‘ism ‘. Within the context of our deeply-held values and beliefs about the nature of Botswana society, we remain a pragmatic party, a party that accepts the reality of change. This manifesto deals with the next five years. It tells you, the voter, what to expect if any when the BDP wins the 1989 Elections. Unlike other parties, the BDP will not make extravagant promises which we know we cannot keep. Unlike other parties, we cannot base our appeal to the electorate on attacks on the record of any other party – because the other parties have no record to attack, except in some urban areas where, sadly they have accomplished remarkably little! This Manifesto will not personalize issues or focus exclusively on sectional interests. The BDP is not the party of any single tribe or any economic class, nor is it essentially either a rural or an urban party. As this Manifesto amply demonstrates, the BDP is concerned with national issues, with the lives and welfare of all Batswana, now and in decades to come. While this 1989 Mangesto quite properly looks ahead, no voter should forget what the BDP has achieved for Botswana since the first elections in 1965. Botswana was founded on a solid foundation of participatory democracy which comprised, inter alia, Village Development Committees, District Development Committees and Parliament in preparation of NDPs. Further, we have maintained multiparty democracy, freedoms, respect for the rule of law, peace and stability. It is from this base that economic progress derives its strength. From being one of the poorest countries in the world at independence, Batswana now have one of the highest levels of per capita income in Africa. Lacking roads, education and medical services in 1966, Botswana – despite its vast physical size and long distances, now has one of the best transportation, education and health systems. Whereas per capita income actually fell since independence in most of the continent, it rose rapidly in Botswana. Where many developing countries have contracted foreign debts which absorb virtually all of their export earnings, Botswana’s debt service obligations consume a small fraction of its annual foreign exchange earnings and public revenues. In addition Botswana under the BDP Government enjoys freedom, honest government, functioning markets and a stable economy.
Diamonds? Yes, the discovery and development of substantial diamond deposits in Botswana contributed greatly to Botswana’s remarkable success. But it was the BDP Government which encouraged international mining companies to prospect in Botswana. It was the BDP Government which negotiated mining agreements which ensured that Botswana obtained a fair share of the benefits which accrued from mining agreements which have been widely cited as models for equitable long-term partnerships between the mineral-rich developing countries and international mining houses. It was the BDP, Government which obtained grants, loans and technical assistance from many sources -bilateral, international, West, East – to create roads, schools, hospitals, health centres, dams, power stations and low-cost housing – which supported Botswana’s rapid economic growth. And it was the BDP Government which built up the Public Service so that the Government could become an effective instrument through which the revenues generated by mining development – primarily diamonds – could be converted into projects and programmes which have benefited the whole country.
No Swiss bank accounts! No palaces! No white elephants! Little if any wastage! No elitism!
Consistently over nearly 25 years, the BDP has honoured its pledge that ordinary Batswana should reap the benefits from economic development.
Which other party can match that record?  Election year sloganeering? No. Pragmatism? Yes.
Published World Bank data (see 1987 World Bank Atlas) reveals that the increase in per capita income in Botswana over the period 1973 to 1985 was second only to Singapore; that access to primary health services in Botswana has become among the best in Africa; that Botswana is among the Third World leaders in its progress towards universal secondary education. Botswana is acclaimed throughout the World as a shining example of a Third World economic success: an exception – an example to others! What is truly remarkable about the BDP Government’s record of economic accomplishments is that it has managed Botswana’s phenomenal development since Independence within the context of a free and open society and a truly democratic political system. Multiparty democracy is encouraged. Constructive criticism is welcomed. Development was not accomplished through the oppression of a voteless working class; nor was it achieved through the iron reign of a benevolent dictator. In contrast to many ‘successful’ developing countries, a small clique of powerful people did not enrich themselves at the expense of the population at large. Everybody participated; in the political process through the casting of votes; in the formulation of national policy through consultation and parliamentary debates; and in Botswana3 economic development through market access, new jobs and the acquisition of new skills. True: not everyone benefited equally. But EVERY MOTSWANA HAS BENEFITED IN SOME WAY OR HAS HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO DO SO, POLITICALLY, SOCIALLY, ECONOMICALLY. The BDP is proud of that achievement, very proud.  The BDP will not rest on its laurels. Some people have short memories. Almost two-thirds of our present population were born after Independence. Those under the age of thirty have no direct recollection of the poverty and deprivation which afflicted their parents’ generation. Half of the total population was born after we achieved budgetary self-sufficiency in 1972. They cannot be expected to vote for the BDP out of a sense of gratitude for having made it possible for them to go to school or to get a job. Those benefits are, understandably, taken for granted. Great and demonstrable as its past accomplishments have been, the BDP does not look back: it looks forward to the future. What does it offer in the years ahead?  To answer that question, let me describe briefly the challenge that Botswana faces over the next five years. Botswana may have more diamond deposits which may one day be developed, but it is already the third largest diamond producer in the world. Other countries, including Namibia, Angola, Russia and Australia, also have large diamond reserves. Without sustained increases in the global demand for diamonds, producing countries must exercise self-restraint in expanding production. Over-supply can only reduce prices, to the detriment of all. We in Botswana must accept that our production of diamonds has, for the time being, nearly peaked. No longer can we look to production increase to deliver more revenues to Government for recycling – through development projects and social welfare programmes – into broader-based development. We must accept that, much as we may emphasize rural development, agriculture, both livestock and arable, cannot continue, to sustain the present income levels experienced by the majority of Batswana who live in rural areas. This is all the more so if Botswana’s population growth rate remains effectively the second highest in the world. We must face the new economic realities, namely, that continued economic growth and job creation depend on rapid diversification of the economy and new investment in the manufacturing and service sectors. We must accept that, as in the past, we cannot do it by ourselves. Large as our budgetary and foreign exchange reserves are, we will need foreign investment, aid and technical assistance. Far as we have come in education and the acquisition of skills, we still need foreign expertise, managerial and technical skills and market contacts to broaden our economic base and to create business and employment for Batswana.  Times have changed. Botswana faces a challenge every bit as daunting as the task which the BDP Government confronted at Independence. The country has a choice. It can follow the advice of those parties who are only concerned with redistributing the benefits which the BDP Government has generated from its highly successful past development policies and sound national economic management. Those parties will call for spending our carefully accumulated surpluses on wage increases and all kinds of subsidies. They will probably advocate the nationalization of privately-owned farms and industries, and the enlargement of the public sector. That will be an attractive package to those voters whose sole concern is to achieve a once-and-for-all, short-term personal advantage, or to those who are not concerned about the future or about the ordinary Motswana. Make no mistake. Such policies might be attractive to some, but they would almost certainly exhaust Botswana’s reserves. They would ultimately require the imposition of higher taxes on all, including the cattle farmers, the public servants and on those to whom the benefit would accrue in the short term. Similar strategies have been pursued by many developing countries, some of which, like Botswana, experienced mineral-led bonanzas. This approach led to economic stagnation, falling income levels, shortages of essential goods, rampant price inflation and, ultimately, a new form of colonialism, namely, dictatorship by the state. The other choice is to accept that diamonds, important as they will continue to be in Botswana’s economy, will no longer be the engine of growth. We must recognize that new investment is needed in other sectors to create new jobs. We must acknowledge that the Government cannot achieve economic growth by itself particularly after the accumulated financial surpluses have been drawn to complete existing projects and to maintain departmental programmes. Therefore, the private sector must be encouraged to expand. To avoid higher taxes, new revenues must be generated by enlarging the country’s economic base. It is important that Batswana should participate at all levels in the private sector. The BDP Government will continue to devise ways and means of enabling Batswana to gain access to financial assistance. In addition, Batswana will be encouraged and assisted to develop skills to enable them to run new investments and enterprises on their own. Whilst accumulated domestic funds will carry us some way, Batswana generally have insufficient capital to develop new factories, new mines, new banks and new hotels – and we still lack many of the managerial, technical and commercial skills on which sustained economic growth and diversification depend. So we need to open up the economy. We need to attract new foreign investors by offering them a fair deal, security and political stability. We need to remove those regulations or restrictions which hamper entrepreneurship, hinder efficiency or reduce job creation. We need to look outward, to sell our new products in the markets of the world, just as we have sold our diamonds, bee5 copper and nickel abroad in the past. Our domestic market is still too small to support many viable import substituting industries. Above all, we need to increase the national economic cake, and not be content with slicing the existing cake in a different way. We need to increase the national economic cake. This is the option which the BDP supports.  The next five years will be a difficult time. We have, as a nation, become accustomed to growth, to ever – improving opportunities for employment, better education, higher salaries. As diamond-led growth slows, adjustments will have to be made. Government agencies will have to make do with smaller budgets. The public sector as a whole will have to become more cost effective, more service-oriented-assisting the private sector rather than regulating it and slowing it down. Vigilance must be maintained, in both economic and security sphere, but not at the cost of development and social progress. We will have to work harder, to become productive and more competitive.  More than ever before, care must be taken in spending public resources. Batswana did not survive the long droughts and prolonged hostilities which have beset them throughout their history as a nation by slaughtering all their cattle and consuming their entire harvests in years of plenty. They have always built up their herds and saved part of their crops to protect them against future misfortunes, or to carry them through periods of uncertainty. It was within that tradition that the BDP Government deliberately put aside part of the diamond bonanza and, ignoring the angry protests of the opposition parties who wished to consume it all during the good times, built up budgetary and foreign exchange reserves. It did so precisely in order that the transition to economic diversification and slower growth could be accomplished smoothly and without a sudden shock to the nation. BUT WHY VOTE FOR THE BDP? Let me give you five good reasons:
Firstly: Among Botswana’s political parties, the BDP alone has the necessary capabilities to lead the country through the period of adjustment to a new era of rapid growth and prosperity;
Secondly: It has long experience in organizing, motivating and running a national political party which has, since its inception in 1962, succeeded in keeping in touch with the people and serving them;
Thirdly: It has acquired enormous experience in running a national government.
Many of its Ministers have served successfully for many years, in several ministries. They have learned, first-hand, how to convert Manifesto promises into Government policies, how to reflect Government policies in national development plans, and how to translate national development plans into meaningful programmes and action. Think of the advances which Botswana has made in education and health. Think of Financial Assistance Programme. Think of Arable Land Development Programme (ALDEP)), Accelerated Rain Fed Arable Programme (AMP), for example; Fourthly: The BDP leaders have the network of contacts, and command sufficient respect around the world to ensure that Botswana’s sovereignty and independence will not be challenged, and that the requisite flow of resources-public, private, personal-will be available to support Botswana’s continued growth; Fifthly: Only the BDP remains totally committed to the fundamental principles on which the party and the nation were founded. Only under a BDP Government can Batswana be confident that democracy will survive; freedom and justice will endure; that development will occur; that unity will prevail; that our sovereignty will be respected; and that individuals will enjoy the rewards of their own efforts and enterprise. This Manifesto spells out the BDP’s policies and goals clearly, without offering unrealistic promises or repeating tired slogans. When I opened Parliament in November last year, I said, ‘Voting is an expression of freewill of the people in making a choice of Government.’ Before you exercise your right to vote, before you choose which party you would like to form the next government, please consider carefully what the BDP offers to you and note what it does not pretend it could do for you.



August 15, 2011 at 21:01 Leave a comment

about the blog

This blog is about countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) regarding societies, political parties and policies. Most interest will be spent on the countries: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia.

Recent Posts